That's exactly what happens if, under Rule 4-3b, a player's putter is damaged outside the normal course of a round.
Once a putter is bent or altered in a show of anger following a shot, it is deemed non-conforming and can't be used for the rest of that round.
So when Sergio Garcia bent his putter after slamming it into the ground during the third round of the FedEx Cup Playoffs event in Boston, he resorted to using a three-wood and three-iron to mixed results and even tried his driver to very poor effect (see below).
"How's your golf game?" pic.twitter.com/hcMRkMI4pC— Total Golf Move™ (@totalgolfmove) September 4, 2017